• Jeremy John Samuel Burnley Hall Hall Marketing


Learning Effectiveness, Efficiency, Engagement, Legitimacy, Synthesis, Business Simulation Design


In Fine Art, Principles of Design are the fundamental ideas of the practice of good visual design (Lidwell et al, 2010). This paper draws a parallel for business simulations where design principles are the fundamental ideas of learning design. Just as design principles for fine art enable a critical and objective analysis of a painting, it is suggested that the design principles discussed here will help organisations and users critically and objectively analyse a business simulation. The principles should help the designer to meet the needs and wants of the organisational user, participants and tutors. All principles are important to the simulation designer but the other groups have differing needs and concerns and for them the principles vary in importance before, during and after use. Also, the principles are interacting, interdependent and at times conflicting. Although the principles are discussed in the context of business simulation design they may be of use for other forms of experiential learning and, with thought, be of use to other learning initiatives.

The design principles discussed here focus on ensuring learning effectiveness, efficiency, engagement, legitimacy and how the business simulation functions holistically.

Author Biography

Jeremy John Samuel Burnley Hall, Hall Marketing



Barnet, Sylvan (2014) A Short Guide To Writing about Art Pearson, New York

Bloom, Benjamin S. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain Longman, New York

Bryantjaquez (2012) Harmony In Art ( retrieved 06/10/16

Caws, Mary Ann (2000) Dora Mar with and without

Picasso: A Biography Thames & Hudson, London

Challenging the Sales Force (2007) Schneider Electric Case Study Retrieved 02/09/2017

Chandler, P. & J. Sweller (1991) Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction Cognition and Instruction, 8(4),

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2002) Flow Random House. London

Dow, Arthur Wesley (1913) COMPOSITION A series of exercises in art structure for the used of students and teachers Doubleday, Page & Company, New York

Dulewicz, Victor (1982) The appliction of assessment centres Personnel Management September

Feinstein, Andrew Hale, Hugh M. Cannon (2001) Fidelity, Verifiability and Validity of Simulation: Constructs for Evaluation Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 28

Fry, Roger (1909) An Essay in Aesthetics, New Quarterly

Getty (2011) Principles of Design Understanding Formal Analysis Retrieved 02/09/2017

Goosen, Kenneth R., Ron Jensen and Robert Wells (1999) Purpose and Learning Benefits of Business Simulations: a Design and Development Perspective Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 26

Goosen, Kenneth R. (2002) A Critical Examination of the

Goosen, Jerry and John Washbush (2005) Analyzing and Thinking while Playing a Simulation Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 21

Greenlaw, P. and F. Wyman (1973),

Hall, Jeremy and Benita Cox (1993) Computerised Management Games: the feedback process and servo-mechanism analogy The Simulation & Gaming Yearbook 1993 Kogan Page London

Hall, Jeremy and Benita Cox (1994) Complexity: Is it Really that Simple Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 21

Hall, Jeremy J. S. B. (1994) Computerised Tutor Support Systems: the tutor's role, needs and tasks, The Simulation & Gaming Yearbook Volume 2 Kogan Page London

Hall, Jeremy J. S. B. (1995) Computerised Business Simulations: The Need for Unfriendly Interfaces Journal of Intelligent Systems Volume 5: Nos. 2-4 Freund Publishing, London

Hall, Jeremy (1996) Business Simulation: Virtual Business Experience Churchill Fellowship Study

Hall, Jeremy J. S. B. (2008) Computer Business Simulation Design: the Rock Pool Method Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 32

Hall, Jeremy J. S. B. (2008) Corporate Cartooning: the Art of Computerised Business Simulation Design Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 35

Hall, Jeremy (2015) Business Simulations: Reality ........... and Beyond! Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 42

Hall, Jeremy (2017) Time and the Meta-Composition of Business Simulations Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 44

Huitt, W. (1999). Conation as an important factor of mind. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University

Jones, Roger (2012) Leonardo da Vinci: anatomist The British Journal of General Practice London

Kandinsky, Wassily (1914) Concerning The Spiritual In Art [Translated By Michael T. H. Sadler - 1977 edition] General Publishing Company, Toronto, Ontario

Kirkpatrick, James D. and Wendy Kayser Kirkpatrick (2016) Kirkpatrick

Klee, Paul (1972) Pedagogical Sketchbook [Translated by Sibyl Mohholy-Nagy] Praeger Publishers, New York

Knowles, M. S., Holton III, Elwood F. and Swanson, Richard A. (1998), The Adult Learner Butterworth-Heinemann Woburn, MA

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kozlowski, Steve W.J. & Richard P. DeShon (2004) A Psychological Fidelity Approach to Simulation-Based Training: Theory, Research and Principles in SCALED WORLDS: Development, Validation and Applications Ashgate Publishing Company, Aldershot.

Lidwell, William, Kritina Holden & Jill Butler (2010) Universal Principles of Design, Revised and Updated: 115 Ways to Enhance Usability, Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better Design Decisions and Teach Through Design Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers

Lundy, J. (1984) The effects of competition in business games, Games and Simulation, 10.

Matisse, Henri (1908) Notes of a Painter

Mezirow, Jack and Associates (1990) Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco

Munsterberg, Marjorie (2009) Formal Analysis Writing About Art retrieved 8/8/16

Nebenzahl. l.D. (1984) Simulation & Games. Vol 15 No 4 December 1984 445-466 Sage Publications

Norris, Dwight R (1986) External Validity of Business Games Developments in Business Simulation and Experimental Learning Vol. 13

PD 76006:2017 (2017) Guide to learning and development British Standards Institute London UK

Pegden, C.D., Shannon, R.E. and Sadowski, R.P. (1995). Introduction to simulation using SIMAN. (2nd Ed.). McGraw-

Hill, Inc. NC

Poore, Henry Rankin (2008) Pictorial Composition and the Critical Judgment of Pictures Project Gutenberg EBook

Prensky, Mark (2001) Digital Game-Based Learning McGraw-Hill, St Paul

Quinn, Clark N. (2005) Engaging Learning: Designing e-Learning Simulation Games Pfeiffer, San Francisco

Ramachandran, V.S. & William Hirstein (1999) The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, No. 6-7

Schukajlow, Stanislaw (2015) Effects of Enjoyment and Boredom on Students

Schumann, Paul L., Philip H. Anderson, Timothy W. Scott, Leigh Lawton (2001) A Framework for Evaluating Simulations as Educational Tools Developments In Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, Volume 28

Sooke, Alastair (2013) Leonardo da Vinci: Anatomy of an Artist The Telegraph, London UK

Stokoe, Jamie (2007) The Gambro Business Challenge Retrieved 02/09/2017

Teach, Richard and Elizabeth Murff (2008), Are the business simulations we play too complex? Developments in Business Simulation and Experimental Learning Vol. 35

Teach, Richard and Elizabeth J. T. Murff (2009), Learning Inhibitors in Business Simulations and Games, Developments in Business Simulation and Experimental Learning Vol. 36

Thiaragajan, (1994)

Vroom, V (1970) The Nature of the Relationship between Motivation and Performance Management and Motivation: selected readings Penguin London

Zollner, Frank (1993) Leonardo's portrait of Mona Lisa Del Giocondo Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 121 (S.): Retrieved 09/09/2016.