• C M. Grimard Universit


experiential learning, feedback, leadership, student evaluation of teaching


Effective feedback is timely, constructive, concrete, descriptive, meaningful, and credible. Yet, universities rely on end-of-course quantitative student evaluations of teaching (SETs) in broad categories to measure teaching effectiveness, in part for evaluation purposes but also as a means of improving instruction. Research points to the well disputed validity and impact of SETs, and a few alternatives are available. Mid-semester questionnaires and


Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Minute paper. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 148-153.

Arthur, L. (2009). From performativity to professionalism: Lecturers

Askew, S., & Lodge, C. (2000). Gifts, ping-pong and loops

Ashford, S. J., Blatt, R., & Walle, D. V. (2003). Reflections on the looking glass: A review of research on feedback-seeking behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 29(6), 773-799.

Bakker, A., & Leiter, M. (2010). Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research. New York: Psychology Press.

Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C.-L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. T. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 213

Baron, R.H. (1993). Criticism (informal negative feedback) as a source of perceived unfairness in organization: effects, mechanisms and countermeasures. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bateman, G. R., & Roberts, H. V. (1995). Two-way fast feedback for continuous improvement of teaching and learning. Quality Progress, 28(10), 168.

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: gender-related patterns in students

Berk, R. A. (2005). Survey of 12 strategies to measure teaching effectiveness. International journal of teaching and learning in higher education, 17(1), 48-62.

Besieux, T. (2017). Why I hate feedback: Anchoring effective feedback within organizations. Business Horizons, 60, 435-439.

Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 101

Chan, C. K., Luk, Y., & Zeng, M. (2014). Teachers

Clayson, D. E. (2009). Student evaluations of teaching: Are they related to what students learn? A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Journal of Marketing Education, 31, 16

Cohen, P. A. (1981). Student ratings of instruction and student achievement: a meta-analysis of multisection validity studies, Review of Educational Research, 51, 281

Cook?Sather, A. (2009). From traditional accountability to shared responsibility: The benefits and challenges of student consultants gathering midcourse feedback in college classrooms. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(2), 231-241.

Crumbley, L. C., Flinn, R. E., & Reichelt, K. J. (2010). What is ethical about grade inflation and coursework deflation? Journal of Academic Ethics, 8, 187

de Villiers, R. (2013). 7 Principles of highly effective managerial feedback: Theory and practice in managerial development interventions. The International Journal of Management Education, 11(2), 66-74.

Evans, G. J., McGuire, M., & Thanyi, D. (2010). Using environmental consulting as a team design project: Role play to reality. Retrieved from:

Felton, J., Mitchell, J., & Stinson, M. (2004). Web-based student evaluations of professors: The relations between perceived quality, easiness and sexiness. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 91

Ferguson, P. (2011). Student perceptions of quality feedback in teacher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36(1), 51


Freng, S., & Webber, D. (2009). Turning up the heat on online teaching evaluations: Does

George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A. N., & Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 129-138. Retrived from:

Greenwald, A. G. & Gilmore, G. M. (1997a). Grading leniency is a removable contaminant of student ratings, American Psychologist, 52, 1209

Greenwald, A. G. & Gilmore, G. M. (1997b). No pain, no gain? The importance of measuring course workload in student ratings of instruction, Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 743

Gregory, J. B., Levy, P. E., & Jeffers, M. (2008). Development of a model of the feedback process within executive coaching. Consulting Psychology Journal, Practice and Research, 60(1), 42

Grubb, T. (2007). Performance appraisal reappraised: it

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta-analysis and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254

Kolb, D. (2015). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (2nd edition). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6).

Kulik, J. A. (2001). Student ratings: Validity, utility and controversy. New Directions for Institutional Research, 27, 9

Leung, K., Su, S. and Morris, M.W. (2001). When is criticism not constructive? The roles of fairness perceptions and dispositional attributions in employee acceptance of critical supervisory feedback, Human Relations, 54, 1155?87.

Lang, J. W., & Kersting, M. (2007). Regular feedback from student ratings of instruction: Do college teachers improve their ratings in the long run? Instructional Science, 35(3), 187-205.

Marthouret, E., & Sigvardsson, S. (2016). The effect of quick feedback on employee motivation and performance: A qualitative study on how to formulate effective feedback (Dissertation). Retrieved from:

Moore, S., & Kuol, N. (2005). Students evaluating teachers: Exploring the importance of faculty reaction to feedback on teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 10(1), 57-73.

Narasimhan, K. (2001). Improving the climate of teaching sessions: the use of evaluations by students and instructors, Quality in Higher Education, 7, 179

Overall, J. U., & Marsh, H. W. (1979). Midterm feedback from students: Its relationship to instructional improvement and students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(6), 856.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Richardson, J. T. (2005). Instruments for obtaining student feedback: A review of the literature. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(4), 387-415.

Sadler, R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 119

Seldin, P. (1989). Using student feedback to improve teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 37, 89-97.

Seldin, P. (1997). Using student feedback to improve teaching. In D. DeZure (Ed.), To lmprove the Academy, Vol. 16 (pp. 335-346). Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press and the Professional and Organzational Development Network in Higher Education.

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78, 153

Simpson, P.M., & Siguaw, J.A. (2000). Student evaluations of teaching: An exploratory study of the faculty response. Journal of Marketing Education, 22(3), 199

Spooren, P., Brockx, B., & Mortelmans, D. (2013). On the validity of student evaluation of teaching: The state of the art. Review of Educational Research, 83(4), 598-642.

Stead, D. R. (2005). A review of the one-minute paper. Active Learning in Higher Education, 6(2), 118-131.

Steelman, L. A., & Rutkowski, K. A. (2004). Moderators of employee reactions to negative feedback. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(1), 6-18.

Stockham, S.L. & Amann, J.F. (1994). Facilitated student feedback to improve teaching and learning. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 21(2), 51

Wachtel, H. K. (1998). Student evaluation of college teaching effectiveness: A brief review. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 23(2), 191-212.

Weimer, M. (1988). How am I Teaching? Forms and Activities for Acquiring Instructional Input. Madison, WI: Magna Publications.

Wiers-Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B. & Gr

Yao, Y., & Grady, M. L. (2005). How do faculty make formative use of student evaluation feedback? A multiple case study. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 18 (2), 107

Zabaleta, F. (2007). The use and misuse of student evaluation of teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 12, 55