Why Have we Neglected Vicarious Experiential Learning?


  • J. Duane Hoover
  • Robert C. Giambatista


The literature of experiential learning has failed, almost exclusively, to address the perspective of vicarious experiential learning in research schema or conceptual models. We have not found any ABSEL references, for example, that focus on the vicarious dimension as a research perspective or as a fully expressed conceptual framework. Therefore, we ask the question “Why have we neglected vicarious experiential learning?” We address this question by reviewing the genesis of vicarious experiential learning from the literature of modeling and self-efficacy. We develop a model comparing vicarious experiential learning with direct experiential learning. The paper concludes with some explanations of the efficacy of vicarious experiential learning and methodological definitions of the concept.