Reflecting on Reflection: An Examination of Reflective Learning and Assessing Outcomes


  • Michael L. Bruce


Reflection has been identified as a critical factor in the learning process. This experiment examines some of the linkages between reflection and outcomes of the simulation experience. The experiment attempted to measure reflection-for-action, reflection-on-action, and reflection-in-action during a undergraduate business course using a marketing simulation. Teams in this experiment that outperformed their peers appear to demonstrate improved decision making as evidenced by decreased time spent in the various dimensions of reflection. The teams, which did not perform as well, were able to improve their outcome measures of net income but at a slower rate. For these teams, a pattern of decreased reflection time was not evident.