A Framework for Evaluating Simulations as Educational Tools


  • Paul L. Schumann
  • Philip H. Anderson
  • Timothy W. Scott
  • Leigh Lawton


This paper explains how a framework consisting of four levels can be used to evaluate business simulations as educational tools. The four levels consist of measuring (1) the reactions of the students, (2) the amount of learning achieved by the students, (3) the degree to which the behavior of students in other settings reflects what they have learned, and (4) the extent to which results are improved. The paper describes each of the four levels, identifies how Bloom’s Taxonomy fits into the framework, summarizes the current literature in terms of the four levels, and offers recommendations for future research.